For the whole village, the reading room was already crowded, because half of the house was occupied by a shop.

For the whole village, the reading room was already crowded, because half of the house was occupied by a shop.

The medieval knight (Max von Sydow) plays chess with Death (Bengt Ekeroth) to save the family from the plague (painting by Ingmar Bergman, The Seventh Seal, 1956). This scene was recreated in a comic episode of the film “The Imaginary Adventures of Bill and Ted” (1991), where Death is invited to play an interesting game “Twister”.

Later, Bergman shot the films “Person” (1966) and “Whispers and Lament” (1972), where the director’s attention is focused mainly on images of women and the relationship between them. As a once talented narrator, in the painting “Fanny and Alexander” (1982) he touched on almost all major themes of his work. This partly autobiographical (based on personal experience) film, as if by magic, allows the viewer to see the world of adults, albeit frightening at times, through the eyes of two children living on a campus at the turn of the XX century.

Since the 1920s, Luis Buñuel, a Spaniard by birth, loved to shock the public with his work. The painting “Forgotten” (1950) again attracted general attention after a long creative pause. This impressive film tells the story of the cruelty and violence faced by homeless children in the depths of Mexico City. Bunuel saturated his films with unexpected and often bizarre visual images. He remained an uncompromising critic of the Catholic Church and bourgeois values, ridiculing them in such paintings as Viridiana (1961) and The Modest Charm of the Bourgeoisie (1973).

France: spectacle and quality

It took France a long time to recover from World War II. As a result, French filmmakers were not eager to shoot pictures about the events and consequences of the German occupation. They focused on pretentious “costume” dramas and adaptations of classics.

In these paintings too much attention was paid to luxurious scenery and elegant dialogues to the detriment of imagery and the art of photography. Film critic Francois Truffaut thoroughly criticized these films on the grounds that they were viewed exactly as screened plays. He called for a creative approach that would clearly identify the individuality of each director.

Jean Marie and Juettadive film version of the fairy tale “Beauty and the Beast” (1946) directed by Jean Cocteau. This story about a girl whose love frees a beautiful prince from evil spells was re-filmed by Disney in 1991.

Jean Cocteau and Max Ofuls convincingly showed how one can combine creative individuality with notorious quality. In his magical version of the fairy tale “Beauty and the Beast” (1946), Cocteau used a number of special effects invented by Georges Melles, recreating with their help the magical atmosphere of the Monster Castle. In Orpheus (1950), a poetic fantasy on the myth of Orpheus who descended into the underworld, he used similar film tricks, and as a result, the film was unanimously recognized as his best work. Ofuls specialized in witty melodramas such as the film “Carousel” (1950). These paintings can be a good example of skillful use of mise-en-scène.

Two other directors with a bright personality, but not at all similar in style were Robert Bresson and Jacques Tati. Bresson’s early work was largely sustained in the style of quality tradition. However, after the war, he began filming non-professional actors, and in films such as The Village Priest’s Diary (1950), he kept dialogues and props to a minimum.

Dumb comedians Max Linder, Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton had a strong influence on Tati’s work. He combined farce, satire, and comedy of characters in his merry-go-round films, such as Holidays (1949) and My Uncle (1958). His best film is considered to be the comedy “Monsieur Hulot’s Vacation” (1953), where he plays the friendly and eccentric Monsieur Hulot, whose very appearance in the frame already guarantees ridiculous confusion. Daddy filmed the action with long shots from a considerable distance to give the audience the opportunity to find another joke in the frame. Dad also rejected the traditional method of plot construction, composing a picture of loosely related episodes.

Poster for Jacques Tati’s film “Monsieur Hulot’s Vacation”. This hilarious comedy contributed to a radical transformation of cinema, because it did without the parallel editing used in most films since the 1910s.

English quality

Extremely spectacular pictures were also shot in England in the post-war period. These were mainly historical melodramas, heroic films about the war and the so-called Iling comedies, which joked innocently about the English national character. However, producers such as Alexander Cordu and J. Arthur Rank, were not satisfied with the success of the British audience.

They also sought to conquer the American film market. To this end, they co-produced films similar to Carol Reed’s thriller “The Third Man” (1949), which was shot for Hollywood money with stars such as Orson Welles and Joseph Cotton. In other films, they resorted to the help of the god of events in the history of England and its incomparable literary heritage. The film adaptations of Dickens’s The Great Expectations (1946) and Shakespeare’s Hamlet (1948), made by David Lin and Lawrence Olivier, were successful. However, in English cinema there were not enough means to seriously compete with Hollywood, even considering that the latter was at this time in the most severe crisis that threatened its very existence.

In Michael Powell and Emerick Pressburger’s The Question of Life and Death (1946), a dying English pilot (David Niven) cries out to a celestial court of famous historical figures to save his life.

Used literature

1. David Parkinson “Cinema”. – Publisher: “Rosmen”. – M., 1996

2. History of world cinema. – M., 1990.


Social and cultural-educational life of the village of Sopova in the XX century.

The abstract provides information about the social and cultural-educational life of the village of Sopiv, which belongs to the Kolomyia district of Ivano-Frankivsk region. The cultural processes of the national revival period are also characterized

Sopov village Located in the west of Ukraine. It lies in the basin of the Danube River, on both sides of the Singing River – a right tributary of the Prut River, which flows into the Danube.

The center of Kolomyia, lies east of the village, downstream of the Prut River. The western suburbs are separated from the village by the mentioned river. On the left bank of the Prut there is a paper mill, a brewery, a little further from the river – a cheese factory, a bakery in the city of Kolomyia.

From Sopov to the regional center – 67 km, and in a straight line (according to the map) to the northwest – 45 km. To the capital of Ukraine (according to the map) 450 km, and on the highway – 640 km. A route passes through the village, which connects the regional center with the village. Pechenizhyn.

Public and cultural-educational life

In 1875 a reading room was founded in Sopov. Oleksa Tomenko recalls this: “The reading room was lame without washing its own house. And all the young people gathered at the inns, of which at that time there were as many as 5 in the village. And innkeepers – Jews, discouraged young boys to go to the reading room. As for the girls, there was no question of anyone going to the reading room. The whole village would make fun of her and no one had the courage to enter there.

It was not until the First World War that all young people began to go to the trowel together. But I will return about my own house. The founders of “Prosvit” illiterate rented rooms from the owners, but will come together on Sunday or holiday, smoke the whole house and the owners refused to leave. They asked the public government, but it did not work: the former officials began to rule on Sundays and holidays on purpose.

Because they were illiterate people, and the Jewish tenants also gave such a vigor a mogorich and he ruled (convened a meeting) on ​​Sunday. And having nowhere to gather, the young people went to the inn. And there it was already burning. Therefore, the then department of “Enlightenment” began to think and consult about the house. But it takes money. So Father Kharzhevsky and thanks to Mykhailo Smetanyuk organized a church choir. The choir went to carols on the then masters and put money on the house.

In 1891, they bought an old school and built a reading room in the morning – here, where the crypt is now. The reading room was built on their own, and the owners helped with a club. Each owner tried to give and bring an oak. They were brought so that the department could not move into the building, but sold and with the money received bought consumer goods in Kolomyia and formed a store, which lives to this day, only in a different form. A new life took place in his house. The young boys began to go to the reading room, and the inns began to empty.

And young people began to boycott inns. No one went to the inn on Sundays or holidays, because everyone who saw someone coming to the inn shouted, “Shame!” For the whole village, the reading room was already crowded, because half of the house was occupied by a shop. And young people began to create groups – choral, amateur, economic, Sich. There was no room left. So, we need a large village and began to raise money for a new house.

From carols and performances in 1908 they bought the old residence and transported it to the dawn in one night. All the work was done by young people and young owners. However, the older generation did not like it and all the material transported was taken to the reading room and a house was built for the office of the public government. Young people were deceived without a home.

However, the department continued to collect casualties. In 1912 he bought an inn in the village from Father Voynarovsky for 500 Austrian crowns. They began to prepare materials. The club was donated by Sopov’s people, the spruce was bought in the Prince’s yard. All the work was done as possible. The masters paid, and the rest helped as they could. Tol milking cashier of the reading room Alexei Ivan was daily during the construction from start to finish. In 1913 the materials were transported, and in 1914 a reading room 21 meters long and 10 meters wide was built … It was covered with a roof, which was very difficult to get. But because of the factory workers (Fedor Svishchik), and only one Fira a day, leaflets were brought from Dilyatyn and searched. Clay and straw were brought for lubrication. But suddenly, on August 1, 1914, war broke out and all work was stopped, because everyone went to war.

During the construction ideas for a narrative there were: Tomenko Mykita – chairman, Voronyak Yakiv – deputy, Oleksiy Ivan – cashier, Tomenko Dmytro – clerk. Construction Committee: Voron Yuk Yakiv, Palandyuk Ivan, Dovhanyuk Ivan. I, being in deputies of allocation, was a push of all work. Wherever the need arose, I found obedient people and said that they listened and did everything.